Emirate of the Mandian Kurds - Jumblattia in the Wilayat of Aleppo (Emirate of Kilis) 1200 AD-1607 AD

In the year 1607 AD he concluded a treaty with Archduke Ferdinand, king of the government of Tuscany, one of the Italian states. The sermon was read in his name, money was minted, he established a strong army, and he declared the complete independence of the Kurdish emirate from the Ottoman Empire.
The Ayyubids had granted the district of al-Qusayr ([1]) in the Al-Amq plain to a Kurdish prince called “Mand”. He established an emirate known in historical sources as “the Emirate of Kilis and Azaz” ([2]), in the area of the Sirous Triangle (Aleppo - Antioch - Gaziantep). ), i.e. the entire current Afrin region in addition to the areas of Harem, northern Plain Al-Amq, Azaz and Kilis, and the extensions of the Kurd Mountains to the north within the current Turkish borders. [Al-Musawwir (1)]. Perhaps the best person who chronicled this emirate, and touched on its affairs, is “Sharaf Khan Al-Badulisi”, in his famous book / Sharafnama - in the year 1596 AD /.
Sharafkhan says about Prince Mand and his lineage: that the Mandians are cousins of the rulers of Hakkari and Amadiya (in Iraqi Kurdistan - the author). Shams al-Din from the family of the rulers of Hakkari, Baha al-Din from the rulers of Amadiya, and Muntasha or Mand Shah, the founder of the Emirate of Kilis, were three brothers.
In any case, "Mand" had gathered at the beginning of its appearance a force from the Kurdish clans, with which the Ayyubid sultans were bound, so one of them granted him the district of "Qusayr-Antioch" and its castle as a sanjak to reside in with his followers. The Kurds residing in Jurum joined him. “This is how Sharafkhan mentioned it, and there is no doubt that Sharafkhan meant the Kurds who lived in the plains of Jum and Kilis as well. Then the many Yazidi Kurds gathered around him in those areas, and he did his business, and he gradually expanded his influence to extend to the Jomeh plain and the regions of Jabal al-Akrad, Azaz and Kilis, and established an emirate in Kilis ([3]), then the Ayyubid Sultan sympathized with him, and appointed him over all the living Kurds In the states of the Levant and Aleppo.
Prince Mand disputed in his emirate at the beginning of his reign, a group of Yazidi sheikhs residing between Hama and Marash, and a war broke out between them that lasted for days, in which “Mand” was victorious, then they submitted to his order with kindness at times, and coercion at other times. All the Kurds in those parts owed him, and when his death came, his son, Arab Bey, succeeded him. After the death of Arab Bey, his son, Prince Jamal, succeeded him, and upon his death, his son Ahmed Bey, son of Prince Jamal, took his place.
The Ayyubid state ended in Aleppo at the hands of the Mongols in the year 1261 AD ([4]), with Hulagu occupying all its regions, such as Azaz and the districts of Jumeh, Jabal al-Kurd, the plain of depth, and the city of Harem in the year 1259 AD, but they soon retreated to the Iranian plateau in the year 1260 AD after battles with the Maritime Mamluks.
Ahmed Bey was in that period ruler of the Kurdish emirate in Kilis, as we mentioned above, and when all the Ayyubid governments moved to the Mamluks, Ahmed Bey al-Mandi refused to submit to them and the emirate remained independent, governed by the princes of the Mandean family until the arrival of the Burji Mamluks ([5]) Judgment in Syria and Egypt in 1380 AD.
At the end of the era of the Burji Mamluks, Qasim Bey, one of the descendants of Prince Mand, assumed the reins of governance of the emirate and its Kurds. Some of the Yazidi Kurds submitted to his order, and Izz al-Din followed him, along with a section of the Mamluk soldiers of Aleppo, to expel Qasim Bey. Battles broke out between them, which resulted in the failure of the Mamluk army and the forces of Sheikh Izz al-Din, and Qasim Bey was victorious in them, thus preserving the complete independence of his emirate.
The Emirate of Kilis in the period between 1516-1607 AD.
When Sultan Selim I decided to fight the Circassian Mamluks in the Levant and Egypt, Qasim Bey, Amir of Kilis, in agreement with Khairy Bey al-Jarkasi, offered obedience to him, and they had the opportunity to visit the Sultan. And when Sultan Selim occupied that country, Qasim Bey carried his son Jan Polat with him - and he was twelve years old at that time - and walked him with the royal procession towards Istanbul. At that time, Sheikh Izz al-Din went to the office of the emir of the Ottoman Aleppo brigade, Ahmed bin Jaafar, who was known as “Qarajah Pasha.” Karajah Pasha presented the faults of Qasim Bey to the lieutenants of the Sultanate, and exaggerated his slander, so the sultan's order was issued to kill Qasim Bey, and the order was executed. As for his son, “Jean Polat” ([6]), he was kept in the court of Sultan Selim and cared for his upbringing and care.
After the killing of Qasim Bey, his brother Habib Bey took over the rule of the Kurds in the region, but Qara Jah Pasha invited him to Aleppo, and treacherously killed him there by crucifying him under its citadel on the charge that he had married nine women at the same time. Al-Ghazi mentioned that this was in the year 922 AH / 1516 AD, and that this Habib Bey Ibn Arabo was from a significant sect of the “Mandeen” princes of Al-Qusayr.
As it was stated in the book of Abd al-Razzaq al-Hassani - the Yazidis - that it was stated in the book “Dorar al-Habab, by al-Radi al-Hanbali,” one of the men of the tenth century AH, that: Izz al-Din ibn Yusuf al-Kurdi al-Adawi, the emir of the Aleppo Brigade at the end of the Circassian state and the beginning of the Ottoman state, was from a sect affiliated with a sect Sheikh Uday bin Musafir, may God be pleased with him, and they are known as the house of Sheikh Mand... In his days, Prince Habib bin Arabo was crucified under the Aleppo Citadel, and that was between Prince Izz al-Din and the sons of Arabo... clear enmity for religious and worldly reasons. Because the house of Arabo were from the people of the Sunnah... and the house of Sheikh since they were Yazidi.../ pg. 18/.
After that, the Principality of the Kurds was entrusted by the court of Sultan Selim to the aforementioned Sheikh Izz al-Din. After the death of Sheikh Izz al-Din, there was no man among his children and relatives who was competent to manage the affairs of the government in it. The emirate was added to the royal properties in Antioch, and the government of the Kurds in it was entrusted to King Muhammad Bey from the dynasty of the Kurdish rulers of Hasnikeyf.
After the transfer of the reins of the Sultanate to Sultan Suleiman "the legal" 1520-1566. Jan Polat Bey was expelled from the royal court, and entered into the honors of the Sublime Porte. And when he showed great deeds in some of the battles, he deserved the sympathy of the Sultan, and summoned him to grant him his government, which he inherited from his fathers and grandfathers. However, Sultan Suleiman was afraid that his return would provoke the Kurds, so he was blessed to assume power in one of the sanjaks of the state of Aleppo, but Jan Polat Bey was not satisfied with it, so he entrusted the rule of the emirate to “Hussein Khan al-Khadim”, and delegated him to examine the conditions of the Kurds in the state of Aleppo. Kilis, and the possibility of granting its hereditary government to Jan Polat Bey. After Hussain Khan studied the case, he submitted a report to the Sultan, which stated:
((If the Emirate of the Kurds in this region is not entrusted to Jan Polat Bey, then there is no one who can carry out the tasks of their government, quell the revolutions and strife between them, and eliminate their brothers. The residents, the wayfarers, and the passers-by of Aleppo and other Arab provinces are not safe from their deception…)) This report led Until the Sultan blessed the Eyalet of Kilis and its annexes to Jan Polat Bey, so he managed its affairs with awareness and firmness ([7]).
Jan Polat Bey died in the year 1572 at the age of 90-100 years, and he left behind a large number of children whose names ten of them were known to be: Habib, Omar, Ahmed, Abdullah, Hussein, Jaafar, Ghazanfar, Zainal, Haider and Khader, all of whom bore the title “Bey”.
After the death of Jan Polat, his son Jaafar assumed the rule of Kilis according to his father's will([8]), and the covenant issued by the court of Sultan Murad. Four years after his rule, Mustafa Pasha al-Sardar had gone to the Shirvan region in Kurdistan to occupy it, so Jaafar Bey resolved to join him, and he marched to Diyarbakir, but when he reached the mountain of “Qara Cha Dagh, located between Siwark and Diyarbakir,” he fell from his horse and was killed. his death
As for Habib Bey, he had been subjected to a lot of injustice at the hands of his brother Jaafar, while depriving him of his inheritance according to his father's will. But he was solid, avenging himself, so he sent someone to complain to him in the Sultanate's Court, and he had the opportunity to meet the Grand Vizier Muhammad Pasha. In order for the latter to cut off the conflict, he granted him the Sanjak of Nablus from the works of the Levant, but Habib Bey was not satisfied with that, and he sought to grant him the Eyalet of Bals from the works of Aleppo, and it was at the disposal of his brother Hussein Bey, and this was achieved for him. When Hussein Bey was informed of this matter, he sent someone to Constantinople who issued an order to cancel the previous order and depose Habib Bey. When Habib Bey heard of this, he went to the cusp of Sultan Murad, carrying with him five thousand dinars, which he went to gift to the Sultan's private sheikh, and offered him to mediate with the Sultan to give him the government of Kilis. The sheikh's mediation led to the issuance of the order to grant him a peaceful sanjak in the Aleppo Eyalet. However, he was not satisfied with it, and in front of his insistence on the sheikh, the royal order was issued to grant him the Eyalet of Kilis, and he assigned the sanjak of Salamiyah to his brother Hussein Bey.
Habib Bey ruled Kilis for three years, until he deposed and entrusted the rule of the emirate to his brother Hussein Bey, and he remained in its rule for many years with complete independence. He also attained the position of Mermiran, “Emir of the Princes” in Tripoli, the Levant, in the year 1592 AD, in addition to the government of Kilis, and he was granted the title of Pasha, and he became of prestige and influence.
At the beginning of the rule of Prince Hussein Jan Polat, the Janissaries of Damascus came at the invitation of the Sultanate to fight the revolutionaries known as the Jalaliyya in northern Aleppo. And there was a severe dispute between them and the Aleppines, so the judge of Aleppo, Yahya Effendi, brought the scholars of Aleppo and its princes and wrote to Hussein Pasha - Kafel Kilis - requesting his presence to reconcile between them and the Janissaries of Damascus. So Hussein Pasha attended with many soldiers, and tried to quell the sedition, but the Janissaries broke the agreement more than once, so Hussein Bey left Aleppo with his soldiers, saying out of his anger: God gave dogs power over cows, / Al-Ghazi, vol. 3, p. 211 /. The Janissaries took control of Aleppo and practiced a lot of injustice there.
In the year 1602 A.D. Nasuh Pasha was appointed governor of Aleppo, and after a short period of time a great incident took place between him and the Janissaries. Hussein Pasha helped him against them, and they fled to Hama. Then they gathered and mobilized this time to Kilis and besieged it and ravaged the villages around it, such as al-Bab, Azaz, and the villages of Aleppo, and they looted the money and entered Kilis and committed pre-Islamic acts in it ([9])…, so Hussein Pasha and Nasuh Bash were forced to fight them and drive them out of the state.
And when the atmosphere cleared for Nasuh Pasha, he raised a rumor that Hussein Pasha, the governor of Kilis, was disobedient to the state and was working to kill him, and this was contrary to the truth, as the state was taking into account Hussein Pasha due to his magnanimity and courage. Also, his staying for a long time as governor of Kilis was not due to his disobedience, but rather the state saw some difficulty in isolating him, and feared sedition from the Polat elves clan if he was removed, so it turned a blind eye to him and persuaded him with money. When he was informed of the threat of Nasuh Pasha, he began gathering his armies, and they met outside Kilis. Nasuh Pasha was defeated and returned to Aleppo. And he took preparations again to fight Hussein Pasha. And while he was like that, an order was received from Sirdar, the "Great Vizier" Sinan Pasha, to appoint Hussein Pasha as the sponsor of the Aleppo kingdoms and dismiss Nasuh Pasha. Nasuh Pasha got very angry and refused to hand over Aleppo to Hussein Pasha, saying: If they charge a black slave, I will obey him except Ibn Jan Polat. And he wrote to the state that the princes of the clans are not fit to be governors of the state. Only a week had passed before Hussein Pasha came to Aleppo, so Nasuh Pasha was forced to fortify himself behind its walls after a fight took place between them. Hussein Pasha besieged Aleppo for four months, so Judge Sherif Effendi intervened between them and persuaded Nasuh Pasha to leave Aleppo in full after making peace between them in 1604 AD, / Kamel Al-Ghazi Part 3/.
In the year 1605 AD, Hussein Pasha accompanied the Grand Vizier «Chagalezadeh Sinan Pasha» to fight the Persians. When the Ottomans were defeated there, some Kurdish princes left the Ottoman camp. At that time, Sinan Pasha accused Hussein Pasha of being slow in catching up with him, so he was arrested in “Van”, strangled and beheaded, and appointed his brother Ali Bek in his place in the mandate of Aleppo ([10]).
And when the clan of Hussein Pasha heard the news of his death, zeal arose among them, especially his nephew Ali Bey, who was his agent in his absence, so he declared with his uncle Khazir “Khazar” Bey the revolution against the Ottoman Empire, and gathered around him people’s mixtures, conquered Aleppo and became independent in it, just as the governor was killed New Aleppo appointed by Sultan Hussein Bey in the city of “Athana”, in agreement with its governor, Jamshid Pasha, who was also outside the Sultan. So Prince Yusuf Ibn Siva, the owner of Acre, sent a message to Bab al-Sultanate requesting that he be a prince over the army of the Levant, and committed himself to removing Ibn Jan Polat in Aleppo, so the matter came to him according to what he committed to. So he gathered his armies and met Ibn Jan Polat near Hama. Ibn Sayfa was defeated and fled to Damascus. Ibn Jan Polat marched to Tripoli and captured it. In the year 1606 A.D. Ibn Jan Polat met with Askar al-Sham near Damascus, overcame them and advanced to seize Damascus. Its people reconciled with him in return for a sum of money, so he left them back to Aleppo. On his way back, Saleh Ibn Sifa and his son-in-law, thus Ali Bey expanded the borders of his rule from Azanah to Gaza, and he also seized Kurdistan([11]).
In the year 1607 AD, he concluded a treaty with Archduke Ferdinand, the king of the government of Tuscany, one of the Italian states. The sermon was read in his name, money was minted, he established a strong army, and he declared complete independence from the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman government was facing the revolution of the Jalalis in Anatolia, and the rebellion of the concerned in Lebanon, so it sent the Grand Vizier “Quyuji Murad Pasha Al-Sardar” ([12]) at the head of a large force to fight the disobedient, so he exterminated them with his permission and Sivas. Then he went to Aleppo. When his news reached the ears of Ibn Jan Polat, he placed his weights in the Citadel of Aleppo and fortified the walls of the country and prepared to meet the army of Murad Pasha, then he sent a squad of his soldiers to fortify the Baghras Mountain to prevent the Ottoman military from passing through. However, Murad Pasha did not come from this narrow path, but rather from the “Qaz” mountain, so Ibn Jan Polat did not feel that the minister’s armies had raided him. The war took place on Tuesday Rajab in the year 1016 AH / October 1607 AD between the Taurus mountain ranges, next to Baylan, in a location called “Sahl Al-Roj”. And he had joined the minister, the ruler of Marash, Zulfiqar Rustam Pasha, and with him forty thousand Kurds from the Kurds of Delgadir “Dhu al-Qadriya”([13]), in addition to the original Ottoman army, to confront Ali Pasha Ibn Jan Polat, who in turn had prepared a force of forty thousand soldiers. When the two armies clashed, Ali Bey almost prevailed, then the ball returned to him, and the result was his defeat in the battle, and about 27,000 of his soldiers were killed. Ali Bey withdrew to his hometown of Kilis first, then left for Aleppo with some of his military chiefs. He stayed there for one night and then left. As for Murad Pasha, on the second day of the incident, he walked to Kilis to search for Ali Bey, so he seized all his money, and went from there to Aleppo and extracted the castle from the aides of Ibn Jan Polat, and seized all his money.
As for Ali Bey, he left for Malatya and from there to the so-called “al-Tawil”, who was outside the state in Anatolia and wanted to unite with him. Al-Tawil did not agree to his request, saying to him: “I, although I am called the Orontes, but I did not reach your rank.” Then he went to Bursa and contacted its ruler and introduced himself to him, and said to him: I am tired of disobedience, so he connected me to the Sultan. So he helped him in that, and when the Sultan asked him: What is the reason for your disobedience? He said, "I am not disobedient, but the bands of the wretched gathered against me, and I did not get rid of them except that I threw them into the mouth of your soldiers, and they fled to you as the sinners did. If you pardoned, then you are worthy of that, and if you take, then your judgment is the strongest." So Sultan Ahmed I pardoned him 1603-1617 AD and appointed him as Emir of the Eyalet of Tamshwar in present-day Yugoslavia ([14]), and deposited his mother and son with the Sultan. As for his son, he was admitted to the Royal Private School inside the Serail.
But it seems that Murad Pasha did not like this amnesty. As for Al-Ghazi, he says that he returned and declared his disobedience, so Murad Pasha sent someone to kill Ali Pasha in Belgrade Castle, and then sent his head to the door of the Sultanate. This was around the year 1611 AD. Thus, the curtain fell on this Kurdish emirate, and the Mandean family that established the emirate and ruled it from its administrative center, the city of Kilis, was eliminated for nearly four centuries.
After the killing of Ali Pasha, members of the Polatih family were able to escape from the evil of “Koyuji Murad Pasha”, and to hide in the directions of Aleppo and Kilis. Then Said Bey Jan Polat joined in the year 1630 AD with the Druze princes of Lebanon, “with whom his family had ancient ties. Where it is said that the Mandean family embraced the Druze sect since its early days in the regions of Aleppo », / Mawsili, Part 1, p. It is useful to mention here that there are still seventeen Druze villages in the Harem region, whose people affirm their Kurdish origin.
As for the Polat clan, it was stated in “Dur al-Habab” that they were, in the beginning, deviant from the Sunnah. As for Mustafa Naim al-Halabi, he said about them “according to the narration of Sheikh Kamel al-Ghazi”: that they are from the clans of the Kurds in the Sanjak of Kilis near Aleppo, and that Hussein Pasha had deeds worth mentioning, because the Ottoman state was ordering him to travel east and west, so he and his clan would speed up the response and afflict its enemies with a calamity Good.
Jean Polat Castle:
There are ruins and ancient monuments on a mountain elevation southwest of the city of Kilis called "Jumblat Castle". It is located on the summit of “Mount Parsi” at an altitude of 850 m. From its southeast, it overlooks the city of “Azaz” at a distance of (5) km, and the distance between it and the plain of “Marj Dabiq” is about 15 km. Afrin, about 40 km from Aleppo, and 15 km from the city of Afrin to the east.
The area of the summit of "Mount Parsi" on which the "Jean Polat Castle" was built is about 4 hectares, covered by forest trees. As for the castle and its wall, its basic features were clear and existing until the middle of the twentieth century. Two of them are on the western edge of the rocky cliff, and the third is a large and splendid water-cistern, situated at the southernmost end of the summit of the mountain at the end of the slope, with a vaulted roof slightly higher than the ground. On the eastern side of the reservoir is an old cemetery and the Yazidis' Parsi Khatoun shrine.
[1] Al-Qusayr, a castle to the southeast of the city of Antioch, about 18 km. It was an important castle in the period of the Crusades and the days of the Byzantines. Currently, next to the site of the castle, there is a village of the same name.
[2] The first mention of Kilis with the name “Kalsis” came during the Crusader era in 1099 AD, and its ruler was one of the sons of King Shah of Seljuki [Book of Sunni News…, p. 18]. In the seventh century AH, it was mentioned under the name “Gilza” or “Gilzeh”. It is believed that Kilis was a village or a small outpost belonging to Azaz. In 1304 AD, when Tamerlane seized Azaz and destroyed it, its people migrated and settled in Kilis. When the Crusaders took over the region, Kilis was inhabited, and the castles of its region included: Azaz, Rawandan, Jammaha, and Horoz (Sheikh Khoruz - the current village). [Al-Qadri, History of Kilis, p. 18]. Perhaps the best of those who chronicled this emirate and touched on its affairs: Sharaf Khan al-Badulisi in the year 1596 AD in his famous book / Sharafnama, page 230 /. About this period, see also: History of Kilis by al-Qadri, Sharafnama Amin Zaki Part 1 and Part 2, Carl Brockelmann, Features from the History of the Peasant…
[3] It is worth mentioning; That the Kurds, and from the year 850 AD to the middle of the nineteenth century, established on the land of Kurdistan, and the surrounding areas, forty semi-independent emirates, or fully independent. The political conditions in the thirteenth century were more appropriate for the birth of Kurdish emirates and governments. This is because the Mongols, led by Hulagu, were able to swallow the Seljuk state during their great march towards the Near East. The Emirate of Kilis was one of those nascent emirates. For more information about the Kurdish emirates in Islamic eras, you can refer to the book of Allama: Amin Zaki, History of the Kurds and Kurdistan, Part Two.
[4] After the death of Ghiyath al-Din in the year 1215 AD, he was succeeded by al-Aziz Ghiyath al-Din, then al-Nasir Yusuf in 1236 AD, and Yusuf continued to rule Aleppo until the invasion of the Mongols in the year 1261 AD, and he was killed along with his brother al-Zahir Ghazi at the hands of Hulagu.
[5] All the Burji Mamluks are Kurds / Philip Hitti, vol. 2, p. 273/.
[6] Jan Polat, a Kurdish name consisting of two words: Jan = soul or body. Polat = steel, meaning the owner of the steel soul, body or soul.
[7] It was reported that: ((When Sultan Suleiman Khan Al-Qanuni set out to invade Iran, he passed on his way in the wilaya of Aleppo, so one of the adventurous thieves entered his private harem, and took out his gold-studded sword from his cart, without the veil and guards noticing it. When the morning cleared This amazing news spread, and contacted the ears of Rustem Pasha, the “Great Minister” - and he harbored hatred for Prince Jan Polat Bey - it was only from him that he presented to the Great Monarch that those who carried out this heinous act were the Kurds of Prince Jan Polat, and no one else He was able to do such a great thing, so his anger agitated and he issued an order to shed his blood. However, Jan Polat Bey asked him in the meantime to give him five days, and if he did not find the thieves during that time, then he would submit to every punishment imposed on him by the Sultan. And the fourth day did not come until Jan was brought. The thieves’ poles with the sultan’s sword)) [Sharifnama, p. 233].
[8] When the effects of weakness foreshadowed the imminent death of Jan Polat Bey, he appointed his son Jaafar as his crown prince, and entrusted the preservation of money, property, endowments, and the affairs of his family to his son Hassan. He also recommended that his son Habib be deprived of his inheritance, property and government, because of his bad conduct in his youth. [Sharafnama p. 234].
[9] Features of the History of the Peasants... Part 3 - Pg. 24 and Pg. 48. Al-Ghazi, Part 3, pg. 213.
[10] It was stated in the footnote of Sharafnama by its translator Muhammad Ali Awni: that Ali Bey is the nephew of Hussein Pasha.
[11] This is how it was stated in the book / History of the Ottoman Empire, Ibrahim Halim, p. 159/.
[12] He was called “the well” because he used to throw his opponents and opponents of the state into the wells alive, to die a slow death, and some historical sources say that on a tour around Konya, he threw about thirty thousand people into the wells.
[13] It was stated in a footnote to Muhammad Dahman in the book / The Fight between the Mamluks and the Ottomans, by Ibn Aja, his death 1477 AD, p. From 1340 to 1521 AD. Among its most prominent princes was "Shah Suwar", meaning: the knight king. Swar is a Kurdish name meaning a knight who was killed in 1472 AD by the Mamluks, after their victory over him in Gaziantep. Among the most famous possessions of the Dalgarian emirate: Murash, Al-Bustan, Malatya, Gaziantep, Drandah, Bahnasa (northwest of the current Jabal Al-Akrad area on the Black River), the valleys of the Al-Amq Plain… In 1521 AD, the Dalgarian emirate turned into an Ottoman state. As for the Kurdish sources, including Sharafnama, they say that the Del Ghader are Kurds, and there is no evidence for that, that the Del Ghadri forces that accompanied the Ottoman campaign against Ali Pasha were Del Ghadri Kurds, according to Sharaf Khan. The meaning of the name “Dilgar” or “Dil xedar”, meaning “the one with a bold heart”, indicates the Kurdishness of the owners of the emirate. As for the Delgadris themselves, they returned their lineage to Khosrau Anushirwan of the Persian kings, [d. Muhammad Suhail Taqosh - History of the Mamluks, p. 446], Al-Ghazi Part 3, p. 143. This perhaps excludes their being Turkmen more, and brings them closer to the truth of their Kurdish origins.
[14] The Armenian historian “Krikor Taranaghtsi” died in 1643. He wrote about the Jalalites movement, saying: “In this year 1606 when we were in Jerusalem, the owner of Kilis Janbulad was rebellious, and because he was Jalaliya, he suffocated Aleppo and the Levant, even in Jerusalem we were bothered by the siege. Then Murad Pasha killed all the Jalalis in Aleppo, and Janbulad fled with 300 people to Kilis with difficulty and took with him his mother and child, who was beautiful in appearance, and went to the Sultan in Constantinople and submitted to him, and gave his mother and son as hostages to the Sultan. And he complained to him about Nasuf Pasha and others because they made him Jalalia. / Adyat Aleppo, Books 6 and 7, pp. 202-203/.
the reviewer:
- Sayyid Ali al-Hariri, Sunni news in the Crusades, Cairo 1899.
Al-Qadri, History of Kilis, Turkish Edition 1932, in Turkish.
- Karl Brockelmann, History of the Islamic Peoples, translated by Nabih Amin Fares and Moeen Al-Baalbaki, Dar Al-Ilm for Millions.
- Muhammad Amin Zaki, Part One, History of Kurdish States and Emirates, Part Two, History of the Kurds and Kurdistan 1937. Translated from Kurdish by Muhammad Ali Awni 1945.
- Abdul Razzaq Al-Husseini, The Yazidis in Their Present and Past, Seventh Edition 1980.
- Sheikh Kamel Al-Ghazi, Nahr Al-Dahab in the History of Aleppo, three parts.
- Ibrahim Bey Helmy, History of the Attic Ottoman Empire 1904, first edition 2000, Cultural Books Foundation, Beirut - Lebanon.
Muhammad bin Mahmoud al-Halabi, nicknamed Ibn Aja, The Struggle between the Mamluks and the Ottoman Turks, increased and revised by Muhammad Ahmad Dahman, Dar Al-Fikr 1986.
The Ordinaries of Aleppo, the Fourth and Fifth Books 1978-1979, and the Sixth and Seventh - 1992, Scientific Heritage Institute, University of Aleppo.
Features of the History of Peasants in the Arab World, a group of authors, three parts.
- Dr. Philip Hitti, History of Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, Part 1-2, House of Culture - Beirut, Lebanon.
Written by: Dr. Muhammad Abdo Ali / Al-Hiwar Magazine - Year 25 - Issue 72 - 2018 AD

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